The glass–ceramic materials are produced by a controlled devitrification or crystallization from a precursor glass. This process differs from the spontaneous crystallization that is a common problem in the glass production. After the devitrification process, the glass–ceramic material contains an amorphous phase of the remaining glass and one or more nanocrystalline phases, all resulting in a mixture of properties. Transparent glass–ceramics containing rare-earth ions or nonlinear optical crystals have received considerable attention, because such materials have high potential applications in photonics. From the viewpoint of practical applications in integrated optics or photonic crystals, it is important to fabricate transparent glass–ceramics with controlled patterns as micro-scale dots or lines, which can be used as laser waveguides, gratings or wavelength conversion devices.
Some selected papers about glass and glass ceramics are: